The Pursuit of Gender Equality – An Uphill Battle

Gender inequalities persist in all areas of social and economic life and across countries. Young women in OECD countries generally obtain more years of schooling than young men, but women are less likely than men to engage in paid work. Gaps widen with age, as motherhood typically has marked negative effects on gender pay gaps and career advancement. Women are also less likely to be entrepreneurs, and are underrepresented in private and public leadership positions.

The 2013 and 2015 OECD Gender Recommendations provide guidance on how to advance gender equality in education, employment, entrepreneurship and public life; this book discusses recent developments in these areas in one overview chapter and 24 short chapters which each include key findings and policy recommendations. Topics include violence against women, gender budgeting, the unequal sharing of unpaid work, labour market outcomes and migration. The book presents a range of indicators illustrating gender gaps. It also discusses recent policy initiatives, such as pay transparency measures to reduce gender wage gaps and policy reform aimed at fathers taking parental leave. Overall, progress has been slow and there is a strong need for further policy action to close gender gaps in education, employment, entrepreneurship and public life.

Table of contents:

– Foreword and acknowledgements
– Acronyms and conventional signs
– Executive summary
– Gender equality in the OECD and around the world: An overview
– Sustainable development goals and gender equality
– Governance for gender equality
– Socio-demographic change and gender roles
– Violence against women: A new policy priority for OECD countries
– Where girls still lag behind in education
– The under-representation of women in STEM fields
– Boys fall behind at school, but catch up shortly thereafter
– Boys and men are under-represented in health studies and among teachers
– Gender gaps in financial literacy and financial education
– Women at work: A snapshot of women in the labour force
– The gender wage gap
– Barriers to women’s career path and income mobility
– Glass ceilings still unbroken
– Gender inequality in unpaid work
– A good start for equal parenting: Paid parental leave
– Childcare supports: Helping both parents in paid work
– Flexible working arrangements
– Gender gaps in education and labour markets of emerging economies
– Gender inequality in the Middle East and North Africa: Women’s participation in economic and public life
– Women on the move
– Gender, health and labour force participation
– Going digital: The future of work for women
– Gender gaps in entrepreneurship persist
– Policies to address barriers to women entrepreneurs



Additional information


Printed & PDF, PDF only

Publication date

31 Oct 2017




Printed: 9789264281301
ebook: 9789264281318

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